Bakery products especially pancakes are broadly consumed products worldwide. Pancakes are correspondingly liked by middle-aged people as well as by kids. They are liked because of their smoothness. Pancakes are common these days and people are eating them on a daily basis for breakfast. As breakfast is the most important meal of the day and people are health conscious these days, they worry more about their weight but less about their nutritional intake. Mint belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Mint is a good source of antioxidants, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds vitamins, and minerals. Mint leaves paste was added to pancakes at different levels to introduce a different and unique flavor to kids and adults as well. Prepared pancakes were checked for their physical as well as chemical factors which turned out to be in the favor of health and were extremely liked by consumers in terms of taste and flavor. The purpose of this review is to introduce new flavors enriched with nutritional values.
Innovation in food products involves creating new or improved food items and changing the way they’re produced, processed, packaged, or consumed. Another word for this could be “Functional Food”. Functional food was first adopted by Japan in 1980’s. It refers to the foods that are processed and contain ingredients that help particular body tasks along with being nourishing (Betoret et al., 2011). Functional meals should primarily be focused on function development or (longer-term) disease threat reduction for ‘healthy’ individuals, rather than disease management for ‘sick’ people that are considered appropriate from a scientific perspective. The functional enhancement may be connected to progression, development, substrate metabolism, and resistance against reactive oxidative species (Reddy et al., 2016).
Understanding the necessity of food’s physical properties in dealing with particular health problems as well as the effect of specific food ingredients towards such benefits will definitely benefit the development of many functional foods. The significant segments of the food market where functional food items have been frequently launched include dairy, bread, confectionery, soft drinks, and infant meals (Henry, 2010).
The process of adding nutrients and non-nutritive bioactive components to edible food is known as a fortification (e.g., food, food elements, and supplements). Fortification can be helpful in restoring nutrients that were lost during processing, preventing or repairing common nutrient intake losses and related deficiencies, and balancing the overall nutritional profile of a particular meal or asking customers wanting to supplement their diet for more nutrients (Gahruie et al., 2015). Food fortification might be acknowledged as a communal health approach to enhance the intake of nutrients in a specific population (Dwyer et al., 2015).
Public Interest in Innovative Foods
Three factors are expected to cause a rise in interest in innovative functional foods:
- Rising healthcare costs
- Current legislative changes
- Advancements in science.
It would be unwise to think that certain innovations in foods could be used as “natural remedies” for various illnesses. One probable answer for why individuals are using supplements more frequently among individuals is the idea that meals and the ingredients that make them up occasionally offer medical benefits. Many people who appear to be healthy are utilizing supplements at a high rate that is predisposed by a set of traits, including age, sex, and previous medical issues (Shafi et al., 2002).
Benefits of Functional Foods
Functional foods have abundant health benefits. They are often linked with good health and permanency. This perception has expanded the marketplace for functional food items which are making functional foods accessible to consumers who are health conscious. The overview of functional food constituents in diet looks very tempting and attractive to consumers. Furthermore, a study directed by Stark and Madar, (2002) determined that consumers select functional foods allowing for them psychologically improved and disease preventive. Functional foods are not only foods that contain polyphenolic compounds (Sun et al., 2006).
Problems Surrounding Functional Foods
Sharpness and bitterness are unpleasant aspects of food that are connected both directly and indirectly to polyphenolic chemicals and some functional diets. The degree of bitterness and sharpness of foods is related to their molecular masses. This is the main reason why products fail after being familiarized with the market. This may be changed by properly identifying the intended consumers, but doing so is a time-consuming and expensive process. Hit and trial approach, which is difficult, is typically used to increase optimization (Brossaud et al., 2001).
Functional Food Development and Analysis
Customers’ demand for organic foods has grown tremendously as a result of the widespread knowledge that they may contain more beneficial ingredients than their conventional counterparts. High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is directly and significantly correlated with lower intake of high-fiber foods, increased energy intake, and fleshiness. Even while soft drink consumption is not the main factor of obesity, it is recognized as having a substantial impact on school children of practically all ages. To stop this dangerous usage, a remedy is urgently needed. A range of phytosterols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and carotenoids found in many aromatic plants have antioxidant and cancer-preventive qualities. One of the most popular single-ingredient herbal teas is peppermint (Mentha piperita). The leaves of the peppermint plants are used to make peppermint tea and peppermint essential oil is frequently found in traditional aboriginal and indigenous treatments.
Mint is widely consumed as a basic component in many herbal drinks. In many ways, it helps to maintain health. Mint also contains three antioxidants which are linalool oxide, bornyl acetate, and carrone. Additionally, mint species have powerful antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. Mint’s significant oils and bioactive compounds are engaged in pharmaceutical products. Special effects of mint oil on the respiratory system. Its modulatory role in irritable bowel syndrome has been revealed by numerous epidemiological research. Mint is thought to prevent recurring dyspepsia. Additionally, the antioxidants in peppermint prevent gastrointestinal colic, gallbladder spasms, gastritis, bile duct enteritis, and flatulence (Arumugam et al., 2008).
Therapeutic Use of Mint
Mint leaves are antispasmodic, energizing, antiseptic, anti-asthmatic, simulative, and diaphoretic. Mint within their leaves can be utilized as a therapeutic and scented plant. It assists in flu, infection, malaise, poor absorption, motion sickness, food poisoning, hitches, stings, ear pains, flatulence, and sinus and throat diseases. It is rich in minerals like iron, calcium, and phosphorus. Because mint has a high water content of approximately 78–82%, it is customarily dried for market, in order to prevent microorganism growth and avoid degradation which generally occurs because of biochemical reactions. Also, drying carries out a considerable decline in weight and volume which further decreases packaging, storage, and transportation expenditures (Akpinar, 2010). 6-7 medium-sized pancakes were made from these ingredients.
The current study was carried out to examine if the nutritional content of mint leaves and pancakes might be used to enhance flavor and nutritional value. Mint is an excellent source of nutrients as well as antioxidants and the nutritional profile of food is improved by the addition of mint paste or whole mint leaves to any food product. Not only the nutritional profile is improved but the whole mint also has a positive effect on the flavor and texture of food. Good quality of raw materials is also essential for the production of nutritious products. After adding mint paste in pancakes certain positive changes were observed in the physical as well as chemical nature. Color, aroma, taste, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability of pancakes were also examined which came out to be outstanding. Staff and students of NIFSAT, UAF performed the sensory evaluation of pancakes. Human senses such as smell, touch, sight, and taste were used in order to perform the sensory evaluation of a product. Acceptance of food for human consumption was checked with the help of sensory evaluation. Mint fortified pancakes turned out to be highly enriched with iron which might be helpful for anemic subjects. The hardness and color of pancakes were increased as compared to the normal ones. Also, there was a change in the texture of pancakes which changed from smooth to a bit uneven.
Ingredients in functional foods have health benefits that go beyond their nutritional value but their excessive use can impose adverse effects on human health. In recent years, there has been a general trend toward replacing the use of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants, derived from various plants, spices, and oil seeds, in processed food. Mint leaves comprise a wide variety of vitamins, minerals, phenols, fiber, and antioxidants that possess a diverse range of nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Moreover, mint leaves also have remarkable medicinal benefits. These benefits of mint leaves are due to their significant phytochemical profile. Mint leaves can provide a shield against various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, tumors, and diabetes. Daily incorporation of mint leaves into the diet can provide various health benefits and protection against various diseases.
- Akpinar, E.K. 2010. Drying of mint leaves in a solar dryer and under open sun: modelling, performance analyses. Energy Convers. Manag. 51:2407-2418.
- Arumugam, P., N.G. Priya, M. Subathra, A, Ramesh. 2008. Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environ. Toxicol. Phar. 26:92–95.
- Betoret, E., N. Betoret, D. Vidal and P. Fito. 2011. Functional foods development and their trends and technologies. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 22:498-508.
- Brossaud, F., V. Cheynier and A.C. Nobel. 2001. Bitterness and astringency of grape and wine polyphenols. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 7:33-39.
- Gahruie, H.H., M.H. Eskandari, G. Mesbahi, and M.A. Hanifpour. 2015. Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A review. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness. 4:1-8.
- Henry, C.J. 2010. Functional foods. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 64:657-659.
- Nayak, S., A. Kumar, J. Mishra and G. N. Tiwari. 2011. Drying and testing of mint (Mentha piperita) by a hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT)-based greenhouse dryer. Dry. Technol. 29:1002-1009.
- Reddy, M.K., S.K. Gupta, M.R. Jacob, S.I. Khan and D. Ferreira. 2007. Antioxidant, and antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L. Planta Med. 73:461-467.
- Salve, R.V., H.M, Syed, S.G. More and E.M. Shinde. 2020. Effect of different drying treatment on composition, nutritional and phytochemical content of mint leaves. J. Pharm. Innov. 9:445-498.
- Sangwan, A., A. Kawatra and S. Sehgal. 2012. Nutrient composition of mint paste prepared from various drying methods. Food Sci. Nutr. 3:124-131.
- Shafi. P.M., M.K. Rosamma, K. Jamil and P.S. Reddy. 2002. Antibacterial activity of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum leaf essential oils. Fitoterapia. 73:414-416.
- Stark, A.H. and Z. Madar. 2002. Olive oil is a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches. Nutr. Rev. 60:170-176.
- Sun T., X. Zhimin and W. Prinyawiwatkul. 2006. Fatty acid composition of the oil extracted from farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) viscera. JAOCS. 83:615-619.
Author Name: Rameesha Nadeem