Fiber is an important dietary component that has several beneficial roles in our body. Various studies have proved that there is a relationship between the lack of fiber in the diet and the incidence of several common diseases. The diseases commonly associated with low-fiber diets include coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, diverticular disease, colon cancer, appendicitis, and dental caries. In today’s changing world, consumer’s preference for taste has led to the refinement of flours to make bakery products with improved textural properties and taste. Consequently, the fiber content of diets has also reduced. Substitution of refined flours with whole grains has the potential to improve the nutritional value and the fiber content of the food products. Whole grains and millets such as sorghum, ragi etc. can be used as a substitute for refined flours. Sorghum and plantain (green banana) are rich sources of Resistant Starch (RS) and can be used in many products to increase their fiber content.
Characterization of Soluble and Insoluble Fiber
1. Sorghum Flour Bakery Products
Sorghum is also known as jowar in India, belongs to the tribe Andropogonae of the grass family Poaceae. It is a gluten-free cereal and can also be used for celiac patients. It is rich in phytochemicals, phenolics, sterols, and anthocyanins. It also provides minerals such as magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc and vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and pantothenate. Sorghum can be used to make different kinds of food products. Products like bread and cookies have been made with sorghum bran incorporated up to 15 and 30 % without any significant differences in texture or flavor profiles compared to whole wheat products. Other examples include porridges, germinated malt products, which include porridges and some alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, like Mahewu, which is produced in Zimbabwe. The germinated sorghum flour can be used in the preparation of bread, muffins, biscuits etc. Another well-established use of sorghum is in the production of leavened baked goods such as wheat—sorghum composite bread.
2. Plantain Flour Bakery Products
Plantain (Green banana) is a traditional product which can be dried to form flour and can be used to substitute refined flours. It is a good source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber. Plantain contains higher hemicelluloses content(6.08%) than most fruits and vegetables. Apart from dietary fiber, it is also a good source of some essential minerals such as potassium, and various vitamins (A, B1, B2 and C). It also has high nutraceutical potential. Plantain powder or flour has been used widely as an ingredient in the food industries for baking biscuits, bread crackers snacks etc.
3. Flaxseed Flour Bakery Products
Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. People use it as a dietary supplement to prevent constipation, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, cancer, and several other conditions. The nutrients in flaxseed include lignans, antioxidants, fiber, protein, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or omega-3. Flaxseed flour biscuits, pancake, cracker, and bars etc.
4. Multigrain Flour Products
Multigrain roti is made with 5 nutritious flours that provide iron, protein, fiber and vitamin b. We have combined 5 healthy Indian flours: jowar flour, bajra flour, ragi flour, nachni flour, besan and whole wheat flour in healthy multigrain chapati. Brown bread is a mix of white flour- maida and whole wheat flour- atta. The proportions vary in India with different bakeries as there is no defined mix by law. Multigrain bread has a mix of around 5-12 flours and can be based in either wheat flour (maida) or whole wheat flour(atta) again depending on the bakery. Multigrain flour biscuits, cakes bars, pizza muffins, candies, or other confectionery products etc.
5. Almond Skin Flour Bakery Product
Almond skin flour removes dry, dead skin and creates a lovely glow, reduces inflammation, contains an abundance of Vitamin E- an antioxidant that can help protect your skin from harmful UV rays and is essential to maintaining healthy skin, gentle enough to be used on all skin types. Almond skin flour addition with wheat flour biscuits, fruit cakes, bread, doughnut, muffins etc.
6. Rice Bran Flour Bakery Products
Rice bran is used for treating diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, alcoholism, obesity, and AIDS; for preventing stomach and colon cancer; for preventing heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease; for strengthening the immune system; for increasing energy and improving athletic performance; for improving liver function; and as an antioxidant. Rice bran used for baking biscuits bread or other products to provide high fiber for those who are sufficient in fiber content.
7. Fruits and Vegetables Skin Bakery Products
Dietary fiber is an important component of diet conferring a plethora of health benefits and helps in the prevention of various diseases. Plant foods are particularly associated with high amounts of dietary fiber. A large amount of pomace produced from juice and wine industries presents a cheap source of dietary fiber. Fruit and vegetable pomace represents a novel ingredient for fiber enrichment in bakery products owing to its better functionality due to a balanced ratio of soluble/insoluble fiber, better hydration properties, better fermentability and presence of phytochemicals. Source of pomace and its processing to form powder by various pre-treatments, drying techniques and size reduction has an influence on its functionality. Fruit and vegetable pomace can be used to improve the functionality of food by the virtue of its functional properties. A variety of fruit and vegetable pomaces are used in a wide array of bakery products like biscuits, buns, cookies, crackers, cakes, muffins, wheat rolls and scones.
8. Beetroot Powder Bakery Products
The suitability of beetroot powder as a potential source of dietary fiber for baked pastries was investigated in this study. Beetroot powder was characterized by high total dietary fiber (65.71%) and showed good hydration properties. The influence of beetroot powder addition (substitution levels 2—10 mass%) on the pornographic properties of wheat dough, physical characteristics, and sensory attributes of baked pastries was also studied. It was found that increasing the level of beetroot powder in dough increased water absorption, delayed dough development time, and prolonged dough stability while mixing tolerance index decreased. Physical properties of baked pastries (volume and specific volume) were significantly reduced with the increasing level of beetroot powder in products. Increased beetroot powder addition also reduced lightness, while the redness of products increased.
9. Oat Bakery Products
Oats alone are unsuitable for a traditional breadmaking process, and most commercial oat bread contains substantial amounts of wheat flour. The protein network in commercial oat bread is often fortified with added gluten. Thus, most of the currently available oat bread is inappropriate for patients with celiac disease. However, by applying a novel baking procedure it is possible to make gluten-free oat bread. Typical gluten-free bread is based on starches.
1. Kataria, D., & Dalmia, S. Processing and sensory properties of high-fiber bakery products. International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research, 3(9).
2. Heiniö, R. L. (2006). Sensory attributes of bakery products. Bakery products: science and technology, 285-298.
Author: Mamoona Aslam (M.Phil Food Science and Technology)
Supervisor: Dr. Rizwana Batool (Assistant Professor)
Address: Department of Food Science and Technology, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Pakistan