Wheat flour: It is important ingredient of biscuits. It is a structure builder that provides the basic framework for biscuit making. The wheat flour is composed of nutrients – carbohydrate (as starch), protein and fat, together with some fiber, ash and trace minerals and vitamins. The protein present in wheat is gluten, composed of glutenin and gliadin. The percentage of a protein determines the flour strength. A dough made from strong flour with a high protein content is extensible and can be machined into a continuous sheet for crackers and hard biscuits. Generally biscuits required “strong” flour, having high protein content, typically 10-12%. Soft or short biscuits are required low protein flour (7-9%). Flour should have 14% moisture. The principle starch molecules in wheat flour are amylose. Amylose molecules contribute to formation of gel. When starch gel is heated further, dextrinisation occurs and this gives desired brown color to biscuits.
Sugar: Sugar gives sweetness and imparts color to biscuits, and also help in developing the texture of the biscuit.
Fat: Fats are a vitally important ingredient in achieving the texture, mouthfeel, and the bite of the biscuit. Hard biscuits and crackers require low percentages of fats, while more amount of fat is needed for soft cookies.
Leavening agent: Sodium Bicarbonate & Ammonium Bicarbonate are generally used. It produces products greater in volume than raw ingredients & have superior flavor & eating characteristics.
Water: Main function is hydration of dry materials. It acts as a solvent and helps in gluten formation.
Milk Solids: Provides nutrients to product, provide flavor and textural improvements to aid surface cooling
Salt: Used for flavor & flavor enhancing properties.
Emulsifiers: To stabilize mixtures of two immiscible liquids (normally oil & water). Lecithins, SSL, DMG are used.
Dough Conditioner: Dough conditioners can improve dough handling, gas formation and retention, loaf volume, crumb structure and texture.
Biscuits Production Flow Chart
Industrial Biscuits Production Video
1. Mixing: All ingredients are put together in the right proportion for dough formation. Mixing time plays important role in dough consistency and finally the texture of biscuits.
2. Forming: Forming dough into sheet, which then passes down to gauge rollers and sheet thickness is achieved for molding and biscuits of desired size & shape are formed.
3. Baking: Pass these molded wet biscuit into baking oven. The biscuits are baked on temperatures between 160-180 °C. Baking involves development of the biscuit structure and texture, the reduction in the moisture content, and the development of the colour.
4. Cooling: These baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling conveyors and cooled properly before packaging for better shelf life.
5. Packaging: These biscuit are then stacked and fed into packing machine for packing. Different types of packaging material are available for packing of biscuits like slug packs , pouch pack or family packs etc. Primary packs are put into secondary packaging like cartons to be transported to retailers.
Characteristics of Good Biscuits
1. Appearance: Golden brown top crust
2. Texture: Open, flaky, short, depending on the product
3. Mouthfeel: Crispiness, smoothness, crunchiness
4. Flavor: Bland, mild
As day by day, more research is going simple biscuit is transformed into different segments and these are- Glucose 44%, Marie 13%, Cream 10%, Crackers 13%, Milk 12%, others 8%. Now a day’s people are health conscious and demand nutritional consideration in the bakery products. So, various types of biscuits based on composite flour, biscuits with different flavors, special biscuits -vitamin fortified, high fiber, low sugar and fat biscuit are hitting the market now a days.
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